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Birth injuries to scalp in newborns

Caput succedaneum – is an area of edema (fluid trapped in the subcutaneous tissue layer) over the presenting part of the head. This common condition typically is present at birth, crosses suture lines, and resolves within a few days.
Cephalohematoma – is collections of blood below the periosteum that are present in 1 to 2 percent of newborns. Periosteum is the membrane that covers the outer layer of skull bone. On palpation, they form a fluctuant mass that does not cross suture lines, which may increase in size after birth, and usually self resolves in weeks to months. Occasionally, they can ossify and present with hard scalp swelling.
Subgaleal bleed – is collection of blood between the aponeurosis covering the scalp and the periosteum. Subgaleal bleed extend across suture lines, but feel firm and fluctuant. Blood loss from these hemorrhages can be extensive and life threatening.